The analysis of samples contained in pressurized cylinders is often considered to be challenging. Related sampling systems must be able to handle a wide range of sample matrices contained in cylinders at varying pressure levels. TE Instruments developed the GLS Gas & LPG autosampler to provide a safe and reliable solution for the analysis of Total Sulfur, Total Chloride, and speciated Halogens in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum Gases. The GLS stands out from other sampling systems with its safety features and ease of use.
The GLS functions as sample inlet system and provides a gas sampling loop and a LPG sampling loop with expansion chamber. The sampling system is swept by carrier gas (Ar or He) at pre-defined rate, which transfers the sample into the oxidation zone of the elemental combustion analyzer. This procedure is fully compliant with all relevant test methods, such as the ASTM D3246, ASTM D6667, ASTM D7551, ASTM D7994, UOP 910, and UOP 1001. The GLS can be configured with different quick connects, sample loops, pressure modules, and connection methods to create the perfect settings for your application requirements.
Safety is a critical topic related to Gas & LPG sampling due to the flammable nature of these matrices. Practically seen, the main fire risks arise from disconnecting an ‘open’ cylinder and having an incorrect connection between the cylinder and the autosampler. The GLS has several features to reduce safety risks related to Gas & LPG sampling:
• Automatic Safety Lock on Inlet Ports – Prevents the sample cylinder from being removed as long as pressure is detected in the connection between the GLS and the pressurized cylinder. When the cylinder is closed, the pressure will go down, and the safety lock is deactivated.
• Internal Gas leakage Sensor – Automatically aborts all activity when a small hydrocarbon spill is detected and warns the operator.
• Auto-Shutoff Inlet Ports – Minimize the risk of leakage. Enable a direct, leak-proof connection between the autosampler and the sample cylinder. Auto shutoff means that the flow is stopped by a valve when disconnected. When both the male coupling and the female plug have a shutoff valve, a double-ended shutoff connection is established.
• Real-time Software Notifications – Warn the operator about potential hazards and refer to SOP’s for LPG analysis.
It is possible to calibrate your elemental combustion analyzer for LPG analysis in three different ways:
• By using LPG reference standards with different concentrations that cover the analytical range.
• By using a single LPG reference standard and multiple loop injection.
• By using a liquid autosampler (ARCHIE or XLS) and liquid solvent reference standards.
The GLS is used to determine Sulfur and Chloride in process feeds, finished products, and for purposes of regulatory control:
• Sulfur-bearing materials in process feeds may lead to poisoning of process catalysts in the refinery. Volatile sulfur compounds like thiols (mercaptans) and hydrogen sulfide are being removed through desulfurization to protect catalysts in the refining process. The sulfur content of LPG as finished product contributes to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emissions and corrosion in engine and exhaust systems. Due to increasingly stringent legislation, car fuels have to be desulfurized to levels below 10 ppm, minimizing adverse effects on the environment.
• Chloride content contained in LPG can lead to corrosion, which has a significant impact on the required maintenance and uptime of the refinery. Organic chlorides will form hydrochloric acid in the refining process, which is the main cause of corrosion in pipelines, vessels, and valves. Halogen content in process streams can even foul expensive catalysts. Besides the corrosive effects, halogens deteriorate the quality of the final petroleum products. The amount of halogens in LPG must be monitored closely, to minimize cost and maximize profit.
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